- It is a viral infection typically spread by mosquitoes.
- Vaccines are available for use in horses but not yet available for people.
- WN virus is maintained in nature in a mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission cycle.
- Mosquitoes of the genus Culex are generally considered the principal vectors of WNV, in particular Cx. Pipiens. WNV is maintained in mosquito populations through vertical transmission (adults to eggs).
- Birds are the reservoir hosts of WNV.
- West Nile Virus (WNV) can cause neurological disease and death in people. WNV is commonly found in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, North America and West Asia.
- WNV is maintained in nature in a cycle involving transmission between birds and mosquitoes. Humans, horses and other mammals can be infected.
- West Nile Virus (WNV) is a member of the flavivirus genus and belongs to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the family Flaviviridae.
- Rarely the virus is spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.
- It otherwise does not spread directly between people.
- Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and blood tests.
Do You Know?
- West Nile Virus (WNV) was first isolated in a woman in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937. It was identified in birds (crows and columbiformes) in Nile delta region in 1953.