- It is a chronic, progressively destructive morbid inflammatory disease usually of the foot but any part of the body can be affected.
- Infection is most probably acquired by traumatic inoculation of certain fungi or bacteria into the subcutaneous tissue
- Mycetoma was described in the modern literature in 1694 but was first reported in the mid-19th century in the Indian town of Madura, and hence was initially called Madura foot
- Mycetoma commonly affects young adults, particularly males aged between 20 and 40 years, mostly in developing countries.
- People of low socioeconomic status and manual workers such as agriculturalists, labourers and herdsmen are the worst affected.
- The causative organisms of mycetoma are distributed worldwide but are endemic in tropical and subtropical areas in the ‘Mycetoma belt’, which includes the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Mauritania, Mexico, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen.
- Transmission occurs when the causative organism enters the body through minor trauma or a penetrating injury, commonly thorn pricks.
- There is a clear relationship between mycetoma and individuals who walk barefooted and are manual workers. The disease is common among barefoot populations who live in rural areas in endemic regions but no person is exempted.
- The treatment depends on the causative organisms for the bacterial; it is a long term antibiotics combination whereas for fungal type it is combined antifungals drugs and surgery.